Trauma is described as events that ‘overwhelm the ordinary human adaptations to life [and] … generally involve threats to life or bodily integrity, or a close personal encounter with violence and death’ (Herman, 1992, p. 33).
‘Individual trauma results from an event, series of events or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional or spiritual wellbeing.’ (SAMHSA, USA, 2014, p. 7)
CanFASD Girls, Women, Alcohol and Pregnancy CanFASD Research Network
Australian Website: Phoenix Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health
Australian Website: Trauma Centre of Australia
Gunter J (Feb 5 2019) ‘Drinking While Pregnant: An Inconvenient Truth’ The New York Times Author writes: ‘So my opinion, especially as someone who believes strongly in a woman’s right to make decisions about her own body, may come as a surprise: It’s medically best not to drink alcohol in pregnancy. Not even a little. The source of that viewpoint? My training and practice as an OB/GYN.’
London L, Morojele N & Amanuel H (Jan 30 2019) ‘Alcohol ads a threat to women’s health’. University of Capetown News, South Africa
Recovering Hope: FASD (Documentary) Published on 8 Dec 2018. ‘8 women tell poignant stores about their children w/ FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders) and how they’re learning effective new ways to parent.‘ Also, researchers clinicians explain the physical, mental, behavioral & learning disabilities associated with FASD & discuss evaluation and intervention.